Colonic cancer is a malignant neoplasm localized in the blind, transverse and sigmoid colon. The rectum also belongs to the colonic intestine, but its cancer has specific features of the course and therapy, therefore it is considered a separate condition.
Surgical intervention options for colonic cancer
For most malignant tumors, the main method is surgical therapy. In the absence of metastases in other organs, the most effective way to treat this cancer localization is to remove the affected area.
There are two types of interventions, radical and palliative. Radical operations are performed
The symptoms of colonic cancer are caused by the tumor overlapping a part of the intestinal tube lumen, therefore, detection of the condition at an early stage is possible only with regular preventive examinations. When cancer has manifested itself in full force through various symptoms, this is by no means the beginning of the process.
What determines the clinical characteristics of the disease?
Manifestations depend on the department where the lesion is localized, and on the node size. In half of all cases, the cancer node is localized in the sigmoid, equally often in the blind and segmented part of the intestine. In the segmented intestine, adenocarcinoma occurs more often in the left half. In 2 out of 100 patients, a cancer tumor emerges simultaneously in different parts of the large intestine.There are several classifications, but the generally accepted one is based not on the specific size of the tumor, but on the depth of its penetration into the organ wall and the number of lymph nodes affected by cancer, into which lymph flows from the large intestine.
In only the organ walls are affected without metastases in the lymph nodes, the condition corresponds to stages 1 and 2. At stage 3, the determining factor is the presence of lymph node metastases, with any tumor size. Cancer stage 4 is diagnosed with metastases in other organs, most often in the liver, lungs and bones.
What determines the rate of increase of symptoms?
Adenocarcinoma has a different degree of aggressiveness or malignancy, which is determined by the differentiation or degree of maturity of its cells. The more a cancer cell differs from a normal one, the more aggressive it is and the less functions it can perform.
Well differentiated adenocarcinoma is the least aggressive, poorly differentiated is highly malignant, while moderately differentiated lies betwixt and between. The poorer the differentiation, the more aggressive is the tumor, the faster it gives metastases, but its sensitivity to medication and radiation treatment is also higher. With a high degree of malignancy, symptoms appear earlier and their intensity is higher, as the tumor grows rapidly, involving other tissues and surrounding organs.
Initial symptoms of colonic cancer
In the early stages of development, a tumor might not manifest itself in any way. Sometimes there is rapid fatigability, decreased performance, loss of appetite, but these symptoms accompany hundreds of diseases and pathological conditions, and most rarely they are referred to signs of a malignant colonic formation.
Later, the symptoms of abdominal discomfort, flatus,
Symptoms of advanced colonic cancer
Lesion of the right half is manifested by pain and can simulate acute appendicitis. In cancer of the left half of the intestine, diarrhea can alternate with constipation, blood and mucus in the feces. Cancer of the lower parts of the large intestine is characterized by mucous, bloody and even purulent anus discharge. Adenocarcinoma of the segmented part causes discomfort with belching, incomprehensible pains and rumbling in the abdomen, vomiting and heaviness in the navel.
At this stage, the tumor can sometimes be felt through the anterior abdominal wall. Pain syndrome is different in strength and character, a very strong pain occurs when the cancerous formation overlaps the lumen and the intestinal contents stagnate, which is referred to as intestinal obstruction. This most severe condition can be the first sign of intestinal cancer.
When the cancer tumor decays with hidden bleeding, anemia develops, and for any anemia, colonoscopy is performed.
Adenocarcinoma metastasizes to the lymphatic vessels, affects the liver and lungs through the venous network, and generates implantation (contact) metastases to the peritoneum, often with ascites.
At any stage, there is an opportunity to help and reduce the condition manifestations, to relieve the distressing symptoms, one just needs to want and be able to help, which implies availability of good equipment and expert staff. All of this you will find at the Clinic Medicine 24/7. Sign up for a consultation:
The cause of colonic cancer is not exactly known, if we mean the specific and only factor unconditionally leading to the malignant transformation. Most likely, the process of cancerous cell development from a normal cell starts from several points and proceeds in several ways.