Lung cancer is associated with socioeconomic status, especially in the male population, smoking and professional contact with carcinogens and toxic substances, unbalanced nutrition, and poor lung system health.
All causes can be divided into two major groups: genetic and various risk factors. They are considered to be changeable, because the person chooses them himself, and if they cease to influence them, the risk of illness decreases, such as smoking, occupational hazards and environmental pollution.
Most studies have confirmed the role of heredity in the development of glandular cancers, whereas variable factors cause a squamous and small cell variant of the tumor. Of course, such a correlation is not always observed, but often.
There is no complete clarity about the effect of nutrition: alcohol, in particular beer, increases one and a half times, whereas fruits and vegetables consumption reduces the risk by half.
Most Frequent Lung Adenocarcinoma Causes
In recent decades, the proportion of glandular forms has increased in the structure of lung cancer, while the small cell tumor, on the contrary, has decreased.
At the end of the last century, an increase in the incidence of women, including non-smokers, began to be noted, the primary morphological form — adenocarcinoma and its subspecies with localization in the peripheral parts of the organ — bronchioalveolar carcinoma (BAR). The reason is seen in inadequate production of estrogen, which was confirmed by the discovery of sex hormone receptors on the surface of lung cancer cells.
Heredity plays a role in the development of glandular forms, it is noted that the probability of getting sick from close relatives of a patient with lung cancer is increased threefold. Hereditary malignant tumor occurs at a young age and adenocarcinomas prevail. It is assumed that genetically transmitted inability to detoxify carcinogens and a decrease in the activity of certain enzymes involved in their metabolism. It is necessary to think about the hereditary type of cancer when the disease was observed in the family of three close relatives.
Glandular neoplasms often develop in the rumen, so there are so many cancer patients among tuberculosis patients. Half of those who have recovered from tuberculosis will sooner or later fall ill with lung cancer, again different variants of adenocarcinoma will prevail.
The effect of immune suppression on morbidity is confirmed by the frequent development of a pulmonary tumor in lymphoproliferative diseases and hereditary syndromes.
Autoimmune scleroderma is combined with glandular cancers.
Predominant causes of squamous and small cell lung cancer
In the middle of the last century, scientific evidence of the influence of smoking on the development of a malignant neoplasm was found, the probability increased with an increase in the duration of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked, the quality of tobacco. The transition of Russians to better quality tobacco in the 90s already by the second decade of the current century led to a decrease in the incidence, because Soviet dark tobacco for the respiratory organs is worse than light varieties.
Active government opposition to the spread of smoking led to a decrease in the incidence of the small-cell form of the disease, which was associated with aggressive smoking — several packs per day. The risk begins to decrease only after 5 years after giving up the habit, and with continued tobacco worship, the risk increases 4 times faster than the duration of smoking, the longer, the greater the likelihood.
Passive smoking — inhaling the smoke of other people’s cigarettes also increases the cancer risk by 70%. With the same number of cigarettes and the duration of smoking, women’s risk is always higher than men’s due to greater sensitivity to carcinogens.
Metabolism of smoking products is different in different nations, therefore the probability of becoming a cancer patient in Indians, Japanese and Latin Americans is lower, but higher among African Americans and whites.
Carcinogens of burning fuel and waste from industrial enterprises, urbanization are unfavorable due to air pollution, they add 10 cases of disease every year for every 100 thousand inhabitants.
Work in the steel industry, especially nickel and copper smelting, a decade of working with asbestos doubles the risk of cancer, 30 years of work — the likelihood is exacerbated six times. Uranium mines cause small-cell tumor, this option was noted in the victims of the atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
Emphysema and COPD — background for small cell and squamous cell carcinoma. However, even a smoker may have a BAR, and a smoker who has never smoked may have a squamous cell tumor. At the Clinic Medicine 24/7, they will conduct an examination for the minimum time and find out everything about the disease in order to start the best treatment soon. Sign up for a consultation: +7 (495) 151-14-47
Causes and Risk Factors
In the overwhelming majority of the disease arises due to the long-term inhalation of mucosal light toxic substances, primarily the carcinogenic components of tobacco smoke, which additionally burns the respiratory tract, supporting sluggish chronic inflammation in them.
In smokers, the likelihood of developing lung cancer increases in parallel with the years of smoking and the number of cigarettes smoked per day — the longer and more the number, the sooner the tumor will develop. Non-smokers also develop pulmonary carcinoma, which today is associated with passive smoking. All this is true for the squamous variant; with adenocarcinoma, the correlation is not so obvious.
Proven connection of the disease with a genetic predisposition, especially in women affected by adenocarcinoma and never smoked with Asian genes. Genes not only indulge in malignant degeneration, but are also able to protect against cancer, which is recognized by the example of extremely aggressive smoking long-livers without any signs of smoking-related diseases, although their cohort is extremely small.
Radon radiation also undermines lung health, by the way, according to American experts, this is the most frequent risk factor for lung cancer after tobacco smoke. Employees of «harmful» enterprises, where asbestos and arsenic are used in the industrial cycle, are more prone to illness. Risk factors for oncologists include the adverse effects of radiotherapy for another disease.
Lung Cancer Symptoms
High mortality from lung cancer, primarily due to late diagnosis, because in most cases, the obvious signs of the disease occur too late, especially when the tumor is localized far from the large bronchi.
Often, peripheral cancer is manifested only by complications of the tumor — symptoms of pneumonia with intoxication due to a ventilation failure of a large area or bleeding due to the destruction of part of the neoplasm.
Symptoms of oncopathology do not differ from any other pulmonary process, their duration and persistence with respect to drug therapy should be alarming. Most smokers are chronically coughing with difficult sputum, shortness of breath, similar symptoms occur when a large bronchus carcinoma is blocked.
Pathognomonic malignant process of hemoptysis, characteristic of advanced tuberculosis, all clinical manifestations are very similar. Since the blood in the sputum appears at stage 3–4 with the internal disintegration of a large tumor site, debilitating weakness and temperature jumps accompany this process.
Dyspnea occurs when a large part of the lung is turned off from gas exchange, which occurs when a large bronchus is blocked or airways conglomerate with conglomerates of metastatic lymph nodes in the mediastinum. Progressive dyspnea is characteristic of metastatic lesions of pleural sheets with the development of pathological fluid — pleurisy. Pain refers to late symptoms, and is often associated with germination of the chest wall cancer or involvement of the pleura in the tumor. If the apex of the lung is affected, the pain is particularly intense because the carcinoma damages the large nerve trunks.
Some cancer cells are able to synthesize hormone-like substances that trigger the symptoms of endocrine pathology, severe joint pain, muscle weakness and extensive skin lesions. Already on the first day after the operation, no trace remains of paraneoplastic manifestations.
With a small neoplasm, the symptoms of the malignant process are absent, therefore, if there are risk factors for the disease, it is necessary to be regularly examined to catch the disease in the operable stage. Fluorography and X-ray examination will not help, need CT. We will help you determine the optimal timing of the survey.
If you detect suspicious symptoms, consult a doctor immediately.