Lung cancer includes less aggressive by progression and subject to surgery
Lung Cancer Stages
The classification of the stages in peripheral and central tumors varies. Peripheral neoplasm can be measured, each stage has its own gradation by the largest diameter in centimeters. The central cancer grows inside the bronchus, you can see it during bronchoscopy, and the
Of course, the involvement of lymph nodes in the cancer process, groups and a chain of bronchi and trachea rising from the root of the lung, is taken into account. Metastases in the mediastinum and supraclavicular areas speak of an inoperable process.
One stage includes a smaller tumor with damage to the lymph nodes or larger without lymph nodes. Unconditionally, the presence of separated metastases is stage 4, regardless of the volume of damage to the lung tissue and lymph nodes.
With central localization:
- Stage 1 — the defeat of a small bronchus.
- Stage 2 — the process in the lobar bronchus.
- Stage 3 — the process of the main bronchus, merging into a conglomerate with lymph nodes of the root or mediastinum.
With peripheral localization:
- Stage 1 — the formation of no more than 5 cm without damage to the radical lymph nodes or of a smaller diameter but with metastatic lymph nodes.
- Stage 2 — a tumor up to 7 cm with hilar lymph nodes or more and without damage to the lymph nodes.
- Stage 3 — a node larger than 7 cm or of any size with lymph nodes on the opposite side or supraclavicular.
Diagnosis of lung cancer is a rather complicated process; it is necessary not only to estimate the lesion extent but also to immediately determine the cellular structure. The whole variety of lung cancer is divided into only two types: small cell and non small cell; their treatment is very different.
Lung Cancer Forms
Central cancer is formed in the large bronchi but «center» means not the middle of the organ but the entry point of the bronchi and vessels is the lung gate and on the radiograph such a tumor is seen closer to the mediastinum and the heart shadow.
There is a peripheral tumor growth, which is formed from the lung parenchyma and small bronchi and does not grow in the central parts of the body, but over time, the tumor can reach a large size, taking up almost the entire share, then they are talking about peripheral cancer by centralization.
Inside the bronchus, the tumor grows in the lumen or inside the bronchial wall, it can cover the bronchus from the outside, as a muff; it is peribronchial growth.
A malignant tumor of the pulmonary apex is called Pencost cancer.
According to the unity of the treatment approach, the glandular variant or adenocarcinoma with the subtype bronchioloalveolar (BAR) and squamous cell is combined into a group of
The small cell variant includes low malignancy carcinoid, and very aggressive neuroendocrine macrocellular and small cell morphological types.
Ideas about the roundness of cancer on radiographs have also changed, round cancers only nodes more than 3 cm, smaller nodules look more like honeycombs or
Radiography has less diagnostic capabilities than computed tomography (CT), revealing the formation of clinical manifestations and symptoms of reduced airiness of the tissue. The use of a contrast agent increases the possibilities of the survey.
Lung Cancer Endoscopic Diagnostics
Fibrobronchoscopy is a mandatory diagnosis of cancer, it allows you to see the condition of the bronchi and determine indirect signs of damage to the lymphatic system — depression of the bronchial wall at the anatomical location of the lymph node.
During bronchoscopy, a piece of tissue is taken for microscopic examination — a biopsy, which is possible only with the central character of cancer growth. Peripheral tumors are unavailable for endoscopic diagnostics, with bronchoscopy with a physiological solution, all excess is washed from the bronchial mucosa, and the sediment after special treatment is studied under a microscope. For microscopy, a piece of a peripheral tumor is taken during thoracoscopy, an endoscopic examination of the chest wall or transthoracic puncture with a needle.
Today, complex endoscopy with
Lung Cancer Diagnostics by Markers
Markers are taken not at all for the primary diagnosis of cancer, but to determine its structure with a questionable result of microscopy, in addition there are mixed forms that combine several morphological variants. In all histological variants, a
SCC is characteristic for squamous cell carcinoma, cytokeratin fragment CYFRA 21–1 and
Basically, with the initially high level of the marker, you can further monitor the behavior of the tumor and its response to therapy.
Cancer Complicated Forms Diagnostics
When spreading secondary seedings on the pleural sheets, pathological effusion — pleurisy is not always observed, and small nodules can escape from
Abdominal ultrasound or MRI, CT scan will help identify all metastases.
Adenocarcinoma of the lung is capable of producing biologically active substances that cause pain in the